North Pacific Albacore Management – List of Acronyms and Glossary of Terms
Many acronyms and terms are used which may not be common knowledge to AAFA’s fishermen. As the process of defining how the fishery will be managed moves forward, this document will be a helpful resource for you to refer to.
ISC – International Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean
An intergovernmental body dedicated to advancing fishery science of the North Pacific tuna and tuna-like fishes through cooperation and collaboration.
NC – Northern Committee of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission
This Committee is primarily focused on those species mostly found in the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Convention area (see WCPFC below) north of 20 degrees North. They have been tasked with recommending management options to the Commission regarding North Pacific albacore
NPA – North Pacific Albacore
RFMO – Regional Fishery Management Organizations.
Groups of member nations that have an interest in managing particular fish stocks in a particular area. The two RFMOs which have a stake in the North Pacific Albacore fishery are:
IATTC – Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission.
It is the Regional Fishery Management Organization (“RFMO”) established by the Convention for the establishment of an Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. In 2003, the Antigua Convention substantially revised the IATTC. A pictorial representation of the area covered by the IATTC is available at – http://www.iattc.org/EPOmap.htm. Above the equator, the western boundary is the 150o W line.
WCPFC – Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission.
It is the established by the Convention for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. A pictorial representation of the area covered by the WCPFC is available at – http://www.wcpfc.int/system/files/Map.pdf. Above the equator, the eastern boundary is the 150o W line.
Glossary of Terms
A precautionary approach to defining allowable catch when it is determined that the spawning output of a stock is 40% or less than the spawning output of the stock without fishing. This is a threshold which indicates the stock may be overfished and the amount of allowed catch should be reduced to ensure recovery of the stock acceptable levels.
Harvest Control Rules (“HCRs”)
A set of well-defined, pre-agreed rules or actions used for determining a management action in response to changes in indicators of stock status with respect to reference points. They can range from closure of a fishery to establishment of a quota/total allowable catch to limitations of effort.
Management Strategy Evaluation (“MSE”)
At its most basic it is a general framework aimed at designing and testing management procedures to achieve a set of fishery management objectives. Outputs vary; but include decision rules for setting and adjusting harvest control rules. It is designed to incorporate variables not readily quantifiable – levels of uncertainty in reproduction; ocean conditions which may impact recruitment or stock distribution, etc. to return a stock to an acceptable biomass level or ensure sustainability of a fishery.
Maximum Sustainable Yield (“MSY”)
The largest long-term average catch or yield that can be taken from a stock under prevailing ecological, environmental conditions and fishery technological characteristics (e.g., gear selectivity), and the distribution of catch among fleets
Overfished/Subject to Overfishing
A rate or level of fishing mortality that jeopardizes the capacity of a fishery to produce the maximum sustainable yield on a continuing basis. Once a fishery is declared overfished, actions must be taken to rebuild that fishery within a specific amount of time. A fishery can be declared subject to overfishing which requires actions be taken to end overfishing. The reauthorization of The Magnuson-Stevens Act has contemplated replacing “overfished” with “depleted” as that term acknowledges that some species are more adversely
Participating Territories (“CCMs”)
The WCPFC is made up of Member nations, Cooperating Non-Members and Participating Territories. Participating Territories are American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna
Spawning Potential Ratio (“SPR”)
The number of eggs that could be produced by an average female in a fished stock, divided by the number of eggs that could be produced by an average female in an unfished stock
Spawning Stock Biomass (“SSB”)
The amount of a given fish population which is capable of reproducing. NPA are believed to reach sexual maturity at 5-6 years of age.
These are data points, which when met, will inform fishery managers on which HCR is appropriate. They generally come in two forms:
Target Reference Point (“TRP”)
State of a fishery and/or resource which is considered to be desirable and at which management action, whether during development or stock rebuilding, should aim.
Limit Reference Point (“LRP”)
State of a fishery and/or a resource which is considered to be undesirable and which management action should avoid. When a fishery is found to breach this value (beit stated in catch, biomass estimates, or decreasing catch per unit of effort) fishery managers must act to ensure the future sustainability of the stock.
Total Allowable Catch (“TAC”)
A limit on the total catch allowed within a particular fishery. For NPA this would likely be apportioned based on each nation’s average take. Each nation would likely then allocate a portion of its assigned catch to each applicable gear type.
Total Allowable Effort (“TAE”)
A limit on the total effort allowed to be expended within a particular fishery. For NPA this would likely be apportioned based on each nation’s average effort. Each nation would likely then allocate a portion of its assigned effort to each applicable gear type.